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Criminal justice includes both the effect of criminalization laws related to disclosure of HIV status, and the impact of incarceration on risk and treatment outcomes for HIV. Research shows that criminalization has created a climate of anxiety and shaped messages from the media and health professionals in ways that are not always conducive to greater disclosure. The legal and media framing of HIV as a responsibility to disclose potentially undermines HIV prevention messaging, and may greater numbers of people living with HIV in jeopardy. On the flip side, people in contact with the correctional system have higher rates of HIV than the general population. While correctional settings may be an ideal place to diagnose HIV and engage people in care, more work is needed to overcome barriers to testing and treatment, as well as to manage care transitions for those returning to the community.

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